Crime is an act that violates the law in the certain area. Every country created and implemented its own law. A person who violates a law in a certain place is called the suspect or offender. Those person are subject for interrogation and further investigation for the crime they have involved. Here in Philippines, it has a distinctive law including those Special and Presidential Decree that govern the whole country and one of its implementing force is the Philippine National Police.
Although it has also Municipal or City Ordinances in connection to the National Law that has already been created. Ordinances are specific to other areas in the Philippines and not all are implemented due to their geographical location. Law involving heinous crimes are all implemented in the country. But how to report a crime here in Philippines? What should the first step to be taken to report a crime?
Crime Incident reporting have basic 5 parts:
- What – The name of the offense of the crime incident. This is where the violation is being specified.
- Who – This section contains the following information of the people involved namely but not limited to:
- Victim – The person that was offended by the crime or “Offended Party”
- Suspect – Person who violates the certain crime or called as “Offender”
- Witness – People or person who witnesses when crime takes place.
- When – The Time and Date where the crime incident happened and often known as “Date of Commission”.
- Where – It is the place where the crime incident happened and this is called the “Place of Commission”.
- How/Facts – This is the narration of the crime incident. Although it may be constructed long and detailed or it could be brief and concise. As long as the point is there and it is exactly meant on the happening.
5 Things that should be collected on how to report a crime
Please report a crime as soon as possible and do not wait for longer time.
TIP 1: State the Nature of the offense
This is the “What” part of the crime incident report. When you report a crime, you must remember how it was committed. What is the act that transpired and how it is performed. The Police Officer will investigate and give the appropriate offense to that incident. The Investigator On-Case (IOC) will handle the report and would take action.
The crime could be forwarded to another Law Enforcement Agencies, File at Prosecution or Court, Other PNP Units and in the Barangay Level Court. There are crimes that are handled by Barangay Level before going to Police Station Level. Barangay is also a court and trial the light offenses. If the Barangay Council could not solved the crime incident it will be forwarded to LUPON TAGAPAMAYAPA and if it will not be solved then it will be forwarded to Police Station where it could be filed an appropriate charges to Court.
TIP 2: Take note of the Persons involving the crime
These are the people who are involved in the crime incident. If you want to report a crime then you should do the following steps:
- Victim – It is more advisable to bring the victim in order that the Investigator could conduct the follow up investigation related to the incident. They would ask the personal information of the victim. If you could not bring the victim at least ask the Full name, age and gender. Note if the victim was in grave situation or injured and forwarded to hospital, You should ask the name of the establishment where the victim is held in custody.
- Suspect – If you cannot identify the suspect at least try to remember the physical attributes and age estimation. You must describe what kind of dress he or she was wearing at the Date of Incident and describe the skin complexion. You must also state if possible the last place you have seen or what direction did he or she go after the incident. The Police Officer will coordinate to the neighboring Station for possible flag down of the suspect. If riding in a vehicle or motorcyle, please remember the color, plate number, and unit of the vehicle or motorcycle.
- Witness – This is where you as the reporting person who witness the incident. Do not forget to leave a contact number for further questions and possible participation when case is filed at court.
When any of the involved person is injured or in a graver situation, please contact first the near Rescue Unit or any Medical team that could rescue the life of the person.
TIP 3: Remember the Date when crime is committed
The Time and Date when the crime incident happened is very important. The time should be an approximate or even exact if possible to be more precise. If you cannot pinpoint the time, you can estimate it and please be specific if it is transpired on Dawn, Morning, Noon, Afternoon and Evening. If it is happened multiple times then you must remember the first incident it was happened. The other time it was happened will also be recorded in the Facts or Narrative of the case.
TIP 4: Specify the Location of the crime happened
The area where the crime incident happened is called Place of Commission. It is more important if the place of incident can be more specific when reporting. The law enforcer could conduct a follow up investigation regarding the incident. It is a protocol that if you report a crime, it should be the nearest police station where the place is covered. Every police station has its own Area of Responsibility (AOR) in which the personnel will act on crime incident.
There are some instances that there are cases were dismissed due to the Police Officer solely responding to the incident where he or she is not assigned in that particular area without coordinating the nearest Police Station. A Police officer when responding a crime incident must coordinate to the Police Station for possible arrest or apprehension and further investigation of the crime. The responsible personnel will take over the area and conduct initial investigation.
Report a crime that uses internet or online
For crime incident involving online or internet in which you can not pinpoint where the place of incident transpired. You can go to any police station near you and they will assists you where the case should be forwarded. The Philippine National Police have also a Support Units that focuses on the the crimes nature. The Anti-Cyber Crime Group (ACG) which dealt on cases of online crimes. There are many Support Units of PNP that tackles the specific incident.
TIP 5: You should elaborate on how the crime is committed
The sequence of the incident when crime is committed. You can state or much better the victim will speak on how the crime has been committed. Although the Investigator would not include all of the happenings but to take those important part where it could build a strong case. Do not worry if other is not being stated in the narrative, the other information and instances will be included in the Affidavit.
Involved Persons in the incident including suspects will execute a Affidavit (Solo, Joint or Counter) during the trial of the case. Before leaving the police station, you can read the narrative of the offense and even ask for Police Blotter Certification or Extract Blotter(common term) of the incident. You will also be given an Incident Record Form (IRF) from the station.
When a case is filed at the prosecution or in court, the Police station will have a copy of the case and recorded and will be written in the remarks when the suspect or offender ask for a Police clearance. So you know what you gonna do when you happen to witness or victim of a crime and hope these tips would help you in those situations.